As the student discussed before, the qualitative data will take the form of semi-structured, narrative material, such as a verbatim dialogue between the researcher and respondent in a phenomenological study. However, once the interviews have ended the data needs to be analysed. Mills (1994) asserts that it is best to begin analysing the data as soon as the initial data has been collected, this will act as a guide to further data collection.
Polit & Hunglar (1999, P573) argue that qualitative data is very intensive activity that requires insight, ingenuity, creativity, conceptual sensitivity and sheer hard work. It is more demanding than quantitative analysis. However, there are a number of ways qualitative data can be analysed. Nevertheless, whatever method is chosen, the researcher has to keep in mind bracketing. A process of suspending personal beliefs so that the researcher can enter the world of the research participant. This enables the researcher to analyse the data without trying to confirm her/his own presuppositions (Clarke, 1999 & Appleton, 1995).
Vankaam (1966) & Collaizzi (1978) have developed phenomenological methods of data analysis. Parahoo (1997) identifies the procedural steps
This process actually reduces the data collected forming a clear picture which allows the researcher to elicit meanings and insights from the words of the respondents (Sandelowsky, 1995), and this approach has been evaluated well. Data analysis is not an easy process, not only is it time consuming but the researcher also needs to think about trustworthiness of data.
Trustworthiness is an essential component of qualitative research. Findings should reflect the reality of the experience. Providing participants with the opportunity to review the researchers interpretation of the data (Koch, 1994 & Guba & Lincoln, 1989) can identify this trustworthiness or credibility.
Similarly, the researcher will use alternative ways of explaining the data.
One strategy that will be used to maximise the trustworthiness of the findings is to undertake member checks (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). This will involve taking analysis back to the women to ensure it represents reasonable account of their experience (Parahoo, 1997) thus, minimising researcher bias and determining trustworthiness of the data collected. Furthermore, to check the credibility of the analysis and see if the findings reflected the women's own experiences and perceptions of parent education. Any additions or unworthy data will be sorted appropriately, and this shall be included in the final accounts. Again, bracketing contributes to trustworthiness by helping researchers ensure that their beliefs do not influence the collection of the data and it analysis. In this way biased results can be avoided and a reliable description of a given phenomena provided (Beck, 1994).
However, research by Mayes & Pope (1995) & Clarke (1999) argue that reliability is enhanced when more than one skilled qualitative researcher is involved in the analysis process. This is a sound justification for having two researchers analyse the data. The themes, codes and categories identified by each researcher can be compared and differences discussed. Furthermore, Marshall & Rossman (1995) & Silverman, (2000) suggest that a studys validity is enhanced when the researcher actively searches for evidence that contradicts as well as confirms, thus explanations being developed.
Team analysis will provide the researcher an opportunity to gain many interpretations of the data and therefore prevent any bias (Robinson, 2000). However, this may be questionable. Since it would involve multiple data translations by individuals who were not closely involved with the women, the research process or indeed the phenomena being studied. From a confidentiality perspective, the women would need to consent to their responses been analysed by several people, a verbal consent will be obtained at the beginning of the interview
Access to Research Site
Before any recruitments are considered ethical approval will be sought from the appropriate ethics committee. The community manager will be consulted about the study to gain approval, consent, authorisation and indeed their support. A copy of the literature review will be given to the manager(s) to justify the purpose of the study.
Getting access to the research site will not be a problem. The research study will be conducted in Alum Rock. During the course of the research, there will be no involvement by the midwives in that area and therefore it will not influence any of their work. However, they will be informed of the purpose of the research and any support will be appreciated.
Inclusion criteria as follows:
Using the purposive sampling technique, 10 women will be asked to participate in the study during the initial booking interview.
Once the women have volunteered to take part in the study, a verbal explanation will be given to them. The following will be emphasised:
Phenomenological enquiry is often personal and intimate and the maintenance of privacy is therefore paramount (Morse & Field, 1996). It is important to guarantee that all data is maintained securely and pseudonyms are used throughout to protect identity.
Any research planning should cultimate in the acquisition of ethical approval, especially when it concerns human subjects the issue of ethical approval is in question. The British Psychological Society has produced guidelines on 'Ethical Principles for Research with Human Subjects' which is well worth consulting. It is very important that strict ethical standards are maintained at all times (Bell, 1993 & Polit & Hunglar, 1997).
Ethics in research can be considered to be the degree to which the research conforms to moral standards, including issues related to professional, legal and social accountability. Phenomenological enquiry is largely dependent on the participation of carefully selected individuals in order that a particular phenomena may be truly visualised. As with all research participants, harm and exploitation must be avoided (Polit & Hungler, 1997) and therefore, beneficence needs careful consideration.
With regards to freedom from exploitation, clear and concise information will be given to the women at all stages of the research process and all guidelines will be adhered to. Informed consent as explained before is essential; demonstrating that participants decision to partake was optional after having received accurate, clear and detailed information.
Ethical approval will be sought from the appropriate Ethics Committee before proceeding with the study. It would advantageous to consult the chairman of the ethical committee or the individual midwifery representative, it may also be appropriate to approach the hospital managers for their authorisation and indeed their support (Robson, 2000).
Funding will be needed to carry out the research study, for basic resources, such as travelling to the research site, tape recorder, cassettes, basic stationery and analysis of data collected by the second researcher (see appendix for detail). Copies of the research findings will be distributed to the midwives in Alum Rock and the managers in both the community, hospital and also to the Bradford midwives who can use the findings to replicate the study in Bradford.
Dissemination of results
Once the findings have been established and analysed, positive steps will be taken to put research into practice. If the women have voiced their particular needs with respect to parent education, sessions will be designed to accommodate their needs. The starting point will be Alum Rock, continuing into areas where parent education is a problem for the non-English speaking Pakistani women, preferably other areas of Birmingham and areas of Bradford collaborating closely with the Midwives in Bradford, Walker & Pollard. Copies of findings of the study will be distributed locally and nationally so that health professionals understand and become aware of the importance of parent education. The health professionals may also wish to replicate the study in their areas to see if there is a comparison in results and carry out parent education classes according to the needs of the women, therefore giving choice, control and continuity back to the women (Rees, 1994).